"I came to the conclusion after American Graffiti that what's valuable for me is to set standards, not to show people the world the way it is...around the period of this realization...it came to me that there really was no modern use of mythology...The Western was possibly the last generically American fairy tale, telling us about our values. And once the Western disappeared, nothing has ever taken its place. In literature, we were going off into science fiction...so that's when I started doing more strenuous research on fairy tales, folklore, and mythology, and I started reading Joe's books. Before that, I hadn't read any of Joe's books...It was very eerie because in reading The Hero with a Thousand Faces I began to realize that my first draft of Star Wars was following classic motifs... So I modified my next draft according to what I'd been learning about classical motifs and made it a little bit more consistent...I went on to read The Masks of God and many other books." George Lucas
This is what George Lucas said in the authorized biography of Joseph Campbell, A Fire in the Mind. For all fans and followers of the Star Wars phenomenon around the world, it is not a secret that Joseph Campbell’s work influenced the Star Wars series immensely and this is exactly the reason why I am also analyzing this cult movie series (I decided to go deep just with the first one because it set the standard). I think it can be really valuable to see how the Intuitive Screenwriting Wheel, works on a real example, the narrative that follows the Hero’s Journey. So let’s see what we can learn by comparing the stages.
Also, note that the structure Star Wars was built upon is not Christopher Vogler’s Hero’s Journey from The Writer’s Journey book, it was rather the opposite. Vogler also took this film into consideration while he was working on the book. Star Wars: Episode IV- A New Hope was released in 1977, while The Writer’s Journey was published in 1992. Vogler wrote the original text of the memo that inspired the book in the mid-1980s while he was working as a story consultant for Walt Disney Pictures.
1. Warrior →Fool (The exposition of a wound — ego) BATTLEFIELD
Pain caused by the wrong identity vs. all possible identities. The main conflict is introduced.
“It is a period of civil war. Rebel spaceships, striking from a hidden base, have won their first victory against the evil Galactic Empire.”
In the prologue once again, we see that the ordinary world (in this case, the galaxy) is actually a BATTLEFIELD where the main conflict of the story is introduced –- Freedom vs. Evil. The opening starts with the attack, Dart Vader enters Princess Leia’s starship, looking for the Death Star plans. Before she is taken into custody, Princess Leia, who is also one of the rebellion leaders, secretly gives the plans to R2D2 – the droid.
So, it is interesting that the exposition of the wound and ego can be the introduction of the Antagonist (Dart Vader – Dark Father) who is representative of the pain that the wound and ego battle in this film.
R2D2 and another humanoid robot C-3PO escape the ship and end up on the strange and deserted planet Tatooine.
*WORLD OF COMMON DAY (CAMPBELL) * ORDINARY WORLD (VOGLER)
2. Creator →Orphan (A ray of hope) HEART’S DESIRE
Hero’s heart vs. non-authentic relationships.
… where they are captured by Jawa traders and sold to Luke and his uncle. Droids tell Luke about the rebellion and his eyes sparkle. A part of the message Princess Leia hid in RT-D2 comes through: “Help me Obi-Wan Kenobi, you’re my only chance.” Again, we see Luke’s eyes sparkle, he says: “She is beautiful.” *THE CALL TO ADVENTURE (CAMPBELL-VOGLER)
Luke also wants to go to the academy (this is what his heart desires) but his uncle wants him to stay home and help him. This is the ‘non-authentic relationships’ part I am putting into the equation. The uncle who is obviously protecting Luke is actually lying; he is afraid that Luke might be a lot like his father who Luke believes is dead.
We can also translate this stage as 'the hero either follows his heart or he is lost', or humanity better follow its heart or they are lost.
When he returns, Luke discovers R2-D2 is missing, but he hesitates – afraid to go after him. He knows the planet is dangerous and it’s probably better to stay home.
*REFUSAL OF THE CALL (VOGLER-CAMPBELL)
In the morning, Luke is gone.
*While structuring your film, I really encourage you to choose at least one image that will represent the stage you are working on, so as soon as you know where you are heading, it will be easier to create steps (scenes) that fit on your way there. In Star Wars, an image that encapsulates this stage is: Luke is dreaming about the adventure.
3. Explorer →Magician (The hero decides to go on a quest) A BETTER LIFE IS POSSIBLE
Wrong belief vs. new vision.
We can reformulate this: as soon as the hero goes on a quest, he encounters the first obstacle, something or someone who wants to preserve the old system and structures (the Magician is always connected with the rebel archetype, someone who wants to change the system).
But also, the Magician is connected to secret knowledge. Never forget that the power for change and secret knowledge come from the same space: you have to know how things work so you are able to fight them.
*SUPERNATURAL AID (CAMPBELL) *MEETING WITH THE MENTOR (VOGLER)
In this third stage, Luke meets his mentor – Obi-Wan, the Jedi knight who can talk to droids. He gives Luke his father’s sword: a lightsaber, a weapon used by the Jedi knights who were guardians of peace and justice, but who had been destroyed by Vader. Vader was a former pupil of Obi-Wan's, who was seduced by the dark side of the Force. Luke also learns what his uncle kept from him: his father fought alongside Obi-Wan as a Jedi Knight until Vader murdered him.
Obi-Wan tells Luke the greatest secret knowledge of the Universe, like every good mentor, should do: “The force is what gives Jedi his power. It’s an energy field created by all living things. It surrounds us and penetrates us. It binds the Universe together.”
R2-D2 plays Leia's message for Obi-Wan, in which she begs him to take the Death Star plans to her home planet of Alderaan and give them to her father for analysis.
Obi-Wan invites Luke to go with him to Alderaan to help Leia: “She needs you, Luke, learn about the force Luke,” but he refuses, he says his aunt and uncle need him.
After Luke realizes that stormtroopers who were looking for droids killed his aunt and uncle, he decides to go on a quest. So, it comes down to ‘new vision vs old belief:’ ‘I want to become a Jedi like my father.’ Obi-Wan helps Luke stay committed to the transformation from now on.
*CROSSING THE THRESHOLD (VOGLER/CAMPBELL)
4. Lover →Caregiver (Wish storyline) LOVE INTRODUCED
Love triggers fear (overprotectiveness).
In this stage, we don’t have a love story as we would usually have, but rather the Lover – Caregiver principle (as the opposite of darkness) is introduced. Darth Vader is interrogating Princess Leia. Leia is the ‘the mother of the rebels’ and a true Caregiver who is standing up against the shadow Caregiver – the dark father. She is lying about the location of the rebel base, as she would do anything to protect her people.
5. Sage →Destroyer (Healing is possible) REASONS BEHIND SUFFERING
Healing provokes self-destructiveness.
The empire council has an evil agenda – they rule by fear and the plan is to destroy the rebellion with one stroke. But the reason behind this suffering comes unexpectedly from Vader. During a verbal conflict with one of the commanders, he says: “I find your lack of faith disturbing.”
So, healing is possible but for the galaxy to heal, it needs faith – no matter how it will be used, the Force is the key.
They travel to a cantina in Mos Eisley, where they meet all sorts of different species – also a smuggler Han Solo and his Wookiee co-pilot Chewbacca, who are going to escort them to Alderaan on the Millennium Falcon ship.
This part of the story tells me two things, first, that in preparation for the hero's big adventure he is gathering people around him who he feels he can trust. Secondly, it shows why the galaxy is a sad place in the first place, it is ruled by the dark force. The dynamics in the cantina will tell you everything: smugglers, killers, no one actually believes in anything – the rule they live by is to cheat, kill, survive, pay and who cares.
*BELLY OF THE WHALE (CAMPBELL) *TESTS, ALLIES, ENEMIES (VOGLER)
6. Ruler →Innocent (On the top of the false mountain) WISH FULFILLED, the fake victory
Controlling the outside world vs. the soul’s real purpose can cause a big loss.
For a brief moment, it seems that Luke and his crew win - at least they manage to escape with the ‘falcon ship’ and start their mission to Alderaan – but soon the Death star commander orders the destruction of Alderaan, Leia’s home. Leia is devastated. Obi-Wan feels a great disturbance in the Force, a huge wave of millions of suffering souls crying. The midpoint is actually a big loss.
*APPROACH TO THE INMOST CAVE (VOGLER)
7. Fool →Warrior (Need storyline) DOUBLE IDENTITY — FOOL AND GAMES UPSIDE DOWN (INSIDE OUT)
Right (new) and wrong (old) identity meet, the hero is fooled by fools.
Luke begins his exercises, he is learning how to use the lightsaber by using his instinct. Han, on the other hand, doesn’t believe in the Force. R2 is playing some sort of chess with Chewbacca.
Luke, the ordinary boy, and Luke, the Jedi in training, meet for the first time as Luke finally ‘finds his sweet spot.’
8. Orphan →Creator (Loneliness) PROBLEMS IN (CRISS-CROSS) RELATIONSHIPS
Fairness between relationships and the hero’s heart, freedom. Cheating.
Luke and the crew realize Alderaan is not where it’s supposed to be. The Empire probably blew the entire planet away, but how? Their ship is suddenly pulled into the big spaceship, Death Star, by the huge magnetic field.
Darth Vader feels the tremor in the Force – the presence of Obi-Wan Kenobi.
Luke discovers that Leia is imprisoned and scheduled to be executed on the Death Star. All relationships are coming together.
*THE ROAD OF TRIALS (CAMPBELL)
9. Magician →Explorer (Magic comes from the above) THE TRUTH IS KNOWN
Right belonging changes the hero’s belief structure.
In a sudden change of fate, Luke rescues Leia. The hero knows where and with whom he belongs. The fight continues… and they enter into the ‘dark womb,’ a trash compactor where Luke is first swallowed up (into the subconscious fear) and later reemerges alive. Together they are facing their darkest moments as the trash compactor is going to kill them all. Symbolically, this brings all their fear to the surface first, especially Luke’s, so that later on the fear can be addressed. With the little help of the droids, they survive. But they still need to find a way to escape. It seems that there is no way out, Leia kisses Luke for good luck. The magic that brings new structures and new values is a lot of times symbolized by a kiss, a path that the hero needs to follow.
*THE MEETING WITH THE GODDESS (CAMPBELL)
*THE ORDEAL (VOGLER)
10. Caregiver →Lover (Emotional breakdown) FINAL SEPARATION
Growing up. Vulnerability leads to love/the reward. The Light vs. the Dark.
In the fight between the light and the dark: Obi-Wan sacrifices himself in a duel with Darth Vader after seeing that the others are ready to board the Falcon. *ATONEMENT WITH THE FATHER/ABYSS (CAMPBELL)
The old master Jedi disappears as young Luke is meeting his true self. This is an emotional breakdown for Luke. From now on he has to believe and do everything by himself, this is the final separation from ‘the good father’- Obi-wan, and the opportunity for Luke to grow up. *APOTHEOSIS (CAMPBELL)
They manage to escape, Luke has saved the princess and they now have the knowledge to destroy the Galactic Empire. *THE REWARD (VOGLER)
On their *ROAD BACK (VOGLER) to the hidden Rebellion base, they are suddenly pursued by the fighters, so they fight once again and finally manage to escape.
11. Destroyer →Sage (Death of an old belief, self) KILL OR HEAL (Change or die)
Facing the biggest enemy (fear) brings healing. The final battle.
Leia's schematics show how the Death Star can be destroyed.
Han Solo and Luke get into a fight when Han decides not to join the resistance mission. Small ships are attacking the Dark Star, Luke is doing well as a pilot, he can hear Obi’s voice supporting him. In a series of attacks, most are killed, and it seems that they aren’t able to reach the target. In the end, it is just Luke being chased by Darth Vader. Luke switches off his computer – he surrenders to the Force. R2 is dead – sacrificed for the mission. In the last seconds, Han comes to the rescue; he has chosen the right side. *RESCUE FROM WITHOUT (CAMPBELL)
Luke finally succeeds – Death Star is blown into pieces. He believed and the Force was with him. *THE ULTIMATE BOON/ELIXIR(CAMPBELL) *RESURRECTION (VOGLER)
This represents the death of an old belief and an old self.
The new Luke is coming back to the Rebellion base– they all celebrate their victory. R2 can be repaired. *THE CROSSING OF THE RETURN THRESHOLD (CAMPBELL)
12. Innocent →Ruler (Ascension to a new world) LIVE AND SHARE
Controlling the inner world, compassion is the right way to rule and influence.
*MASTER OF TWO WORLDS (CAMPBELL)
In the great ceremony all cheer to Luke and Han as they are rewarded by Leia. R2 is happy to be alive. The new world is possible as freedom wins.
*FREEDOM TO LIVE (CAMPBELL) *RETURN WITH AN ELIXIR (VOGLER)